Happy New Year to All! Many summer days and some September days have been spent working with teams of teachers and administrators on getting to know our new Framework and the standards it includes. Some educators have followed the process for the past two years and some have seen the Framework for the first time on the first day of school this year. Whatever your experience, the work of understanding and using the new standards has begun.
How should the school or district begin? It may be helpful to consider the main shifts that may be needed in teaching and learning. Common Core Standards author, David Coleman, tells us there are six important shifts to consider. They are balancing informational and literary texts in grades Pre-K through 5, building content knowledge in grades 6 through 12, the staircase of text complexity through the grades, emphasis on text-based evidence in reading, speaking, and writing, writing from sources, and development of academic vocabulary.
Balance Informational and Literary Texts in Pre-K-5
Many of our early elementary classrooms have far more literary texts available than informational texts. An opportunity exists to examine the number and complexity of existing texts and begin to plan for additional texts that support the developmant of knowledge about the world. Our Pre-K and K teachers know how much our young learners love finding out about Nature and the way things work. However, the extraordinary emphasis of the last ten years on increasing math and literacy basic skills has unintentionally led to the loss of time for and emphasis on science and social studies. At the elementary level, it may be enjoyable for teacher teams to develop coherence between literary and informational texts, reclaiming the opportunity for the teacher to be that facilitator of world knowledge. They may wish to explore the suggestions for informational reading in Appendix B, matching some of them to the existing science and social studies curriculum.
Build Content Knowledge 6-12
The Framework emphasizes a shared responsibility for student literacy development. Content teachers will want to pay close attention to types of text, for instance demonstrating the differences inherent in primary and secondary sources for the students. They will want to be explicit with students about how and when differeent types of texts are used, will want to share the expertise they have developed through years of study and experience, and will want to emphasize the use of evidence when reading, speaking, and writing. Eighth grade NAEP scores have been flat and falling for forty years. Only those students who have the stamina and understanding to deal with primary sources and synthesize information from more than one source have succeeded. According to the Common Core Standards authors, our students need experience with a variety of complex texts and the content-related literacy expertise of their teachers in each discipline to achieve better results.
The authors tell us that research shows that we have underestimated the complexity and volume of college-level and technical (those used in careers) texts. In addition, one of the underlying assumptions of the Common Core Standards authors was that we have over-corrected for struggling learners. The suggestion is to read less (in volume), but more complex texts closely. The implications are that work with certain texts will slow down, will consider portions of the text in a close reading that includes re-reading, teacher read-alouds, guiding questions, rigorous discourse, responsive writing, and access for all students. This may be a difficult, even frustrating, exercise at times, but the authors have determined that it is the only way all of our students will be adequately prepared upon graduation from high school. The idea of increased text complexity will certainly be a challenge for teachers and students but David Coleman calls it a civil rights issue. Teachers may wish to work at grade level and across grades using the Appendix B selections to try out some of the ideas of the staircase complexity.
This may be the most critical area for professional development and professional collaboration. As teachers we appreciate our responsibility for providing all learners with the confidence to take the risks needed to learn. The standards ask us to add or renew the discipline needed to teach our students to depend only on the precise evidence that is available in the text, and to do so from the earliest grades. Only after examination of what is specific to the text, can we make those connections to individual experiences. To that end, questions will be very focused on the text being read, to the exclusion of generic questions such as, "What is the main idea?". Text-based evidence is required for close reading, discourse, and writing in the new standards. Teachers may want to practice preparing lessons together using some of the exemplars available in Appendix B.
Writing from Sources
Analyzing texts and synthesizing ideas from a number of texts, are important and challenging skills. These are life-long competencies, the very thing we ask voters and jurors to do. When a group of college professors got together to examine the writing of high school seniors who were perspective college students, they found that 95% of the writing was narrative and 95% was not considered college-ready. As a result, students may submit writing to the Ready or Not Writing site where a college English professor will review it and provide advice. https://www.centerforcollegereadiness.org/readyornotwriting/
Informational writing requires precision, accuracy, and clarity.
Academic vocabulary provides the opportunity for students to competently use the terms that have meanings across content disciplines. This is particularly important because the nuanced use of these terms is required for technical work, for college study, and for navigating through our complicated, global society. Teachers will be asked to be very strategic in the choices they make for instruction and for how they provide opportunities for student use of the terms. Knowing a word means knowing what it is in various contexts, what it is not, and what ideas are related to it. This may be another opportunity for teams of teachers to work on a shared vocabulary development to support student achievement.
While last year was the time to understand the history, causes, and organization of the new standards, this year is a time for experimentation and an opportunity to refocus some of our materials and instructional routines. District and school leaders may want to provide time for grade level groups and cross-level teams to consult and plan together for the necessary changes. Any lessons designed now to focus on the rigor and shifts required by the new standards will prepare students for achievement in future study, in current statewide assessment, and in life. So, dig in, make plans, and enjoy the sense of renewal that our new Framework provides.